Privacy, public surveillance, terrorism

Is Privacy overrated, or should we just think about it in a more balanced way?

Richard Posner (US Judge) in an opinion piece in the NY Times has responded to NY Mayor Bloomberg’s view that there should be a more welcoming attitude towards surveillance cameras.  Bloomberg argues that the US Constitution should be changed to allow more surveillance. Posner makes a good point about Surveillance use in public spaces.

It seems likely that if the Boston bombers hadn’t been caught soon, they would have continued their killing, whether in Boston or NY, only they can say definitively.

surveillance cameras by Jonathan Mcintosh
Surveillance cameras in NY – Photo by Jonathan Mcintosh – http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonathanmcintosh/

I think most people can accept that surveillance cameras should be used in public spaces. They may also be contributing to a general decrease in lawlessness in public spaces, especially in the UK where there are apparently up to 4 million. The question in my mind is always about what is done with the footage. I have fewer problems personally with government agency use of surveillance in a society where somebody watches the watchers than the use by ‘marketers’ of surveillance in shops and ‘semi-private’ places.

The argument against surveillance cameras being linked up is always the fallacy of the slippery slope. I suspect we should all just get used to being watched in public.

In any case, it is probably time for politicians in democratic countries to “Suck it up” and have an honest conversation with the public about privacy, both online and offline.

PS – Of course, when Google glass becomes a mass market item, your life and mine will be 720p movies for ourselves and other people. We won’t say, remember when you were “insert embarrassing event”, we’ll just play it from the memory…. Maybe Minority Report wasn’t so wrong after all – even if Tom Cruise starred. 🙂

 

 

Pizza Hut Australia got hacked – what they did right!

Last week Pizza Hut Australia admitted that its cyber-defences had been breached. Unfortunately the attackers did get hold of customers’ names and addresses. Technically it seems that Pizza Hut didn’t get breached, but the website providers who host their site did.

From a privacy perspective, its time to use the ‘pub’ test, That is – what would your level of unhappiness be if the world knew that you liked the meatlover’s supreme with extra cheese and lived at 32 Rosegardens Road, Morphett Vale? I think not very high. The important thing is that the company claims credit card details didn’t get stolen.

Pizza – not Pizza Hut

My sources tell me that the hackers didn’t get credit card details because this information is held in a separate and better-protected database by a specialised payment gateway. I hope they’re right!

There are a couple of important lessons for organisations to learn from this breach. Firstly by developing granular controls that separate data by its value and what it was used for, organisations like Pizza Hut can develop protocols for their security that give the best mix of data availability and confidentiality. As an example, there are far more parts of the business that benefit from knowing where customers live and who they are than need the credit details. If the data isn’t separated, the organisation can’t make the best use of the data and ensure security at the same time – they have to do one or other. But with granular controls, the marketing department can use addresses and telephone numbers to plan promotions and the planning department can work out where to open the next store, but they don’t need to know credit card details.

The other point is about risk transfer. Although transferring risk to a third-party is an acceptable mitigation according to the risk management standard ISO31000, organisational reputation can’t be transferred. If your company wants to keep its good name when it gets hacked, it needs to have thought about recovery and restoration. Blaming the web provider won’t cut it with customers if your organisation is anything bigger than the local fish and chippery. Generally, the larger the company, the bigger the reputation; more so for .gov

There has been a gradual, but definite change in the way that cybersecurity professionals talk about breaches. Until around 2001, people talked about the possibility of being breached online. Now this has changed from ‘if you get breached’ to ‘when you get breached’.

Essentially, if information is available on Internet facing systems, then it is more a matter of time and luck as to when your system gets done over. This is something security professionals need to communicate with the senior management of the organisation.

For Pizza Hut, this recent event will probably contribute to its longevity and improve its resilience. Research is showing that organisations that undergo small shocks are more ready for the black swans of the future.

However, they should not rest on their laurels, in the aftermath of any breach, an organisation needs to examine how to reduce the risk of further breaches. Some of the questions I ask in such situations are (in no particular order):

  • Does the organisation need to think further about the balance between confidentiality of personal information and the availability to internet facing systems.
  • From a marketing and public relations perspective is the organisation talking to its customers to show that the organisation is taking their personal information seriously;
  • What changes does the organisation need to make in terms of digital evidence gathering – was this adequate enough to deter future attacks – in the long term the rule of law is the only way to reduce the power of the attackers;
  • Did the organisation understand how to respond to the breach, does this need regular exercising;
  • Was there an ageed direction from senior management in the event of a breach, so that the technical staff could ‘get on with the job’ as quickly as possible;
  • Are the relationships with service providers adequate, were the levels of service and measures taken to recover sufficient.

It is important to recognise that the best value gains for the organisation come not from IT changes like forensics, but business process rearrangement.

Online trusted identities – a primer

“Trust is the currency of the new economy”

You may have heard recently about the efforts being promoted by the USA and Australia amongst others to promote trusted online identities. There are also significant efforts in the private sector to develop online trust systems.

Trust will be the currency of the new economy as it was in the mediaeval village. During the late 19th and early 20th Century, formal identity credentials gradually replaced more informal systems of identifying people that we interacted with. Increasing population and technology drove this change. It was simply impossible to know everybody that you might deal with and so societies began to rely on commonly used credentials such as drivers’ licences to prove identity and ‘place’ in society. Of course, drivers’ licences don’t say much if anything about reputation. But if you think about  high value financial transactions you establish your identity and then you give a mechanism to pay for the transaction. Although in most cases it wouldn’t matter who you are, it gives the vendor some comfort that the name on your driver’s licence is the same as on your credit card and makes it just that bit more difficult to commit fraud on the vendor if the credit card isn’t legit. However this isn’t the case with interbank lending. Most of this is done on a trust basis within the ‘club’ of banks and it is only at a later time that the financials are tallied up for the day.

You can’t trust who or what is on the other end of the keyboard just because of what they say

What is a trusted ID?

Most simply, trusted online identity systems are the online equivalent of a physical credential such as a drivers’ licence used to give evidence of identity online. They can (but don’t have to) also be the basis for online reputation. They may also say something about the rights of the credential holder, such as that they are a resident in a particular country.

Which countries are developing trusted identity systems

The program in the USA is called NSTIC – National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace. In Australia, the Prime Ministers’ department has been investigating the possibility of a trusted identity system as part of its work on a cyber policy paper which was due to be released ‘early in 2012’. At the same time, Australia has undertaken a number of processes of service delivery reform, government 2.0 and e-health. All without necessarily solving the problem of identifying whom they are dealing with online. The USA has gone beyond the planning stage and announced that it will move forward on development. As I mentioned recently. NIST has announced grants for pilot projects in NSTIC.

Some countries have already implemented online identity systems simply by migrating their physical identity cards online and allowing these to be used as trusted online systems. A number of Asian countries including Malaysia, Hong Kong and Singapore have proportions of their online services available through such means. Estonia probably leads the world in online service delivery with around 90% of the population having access to an online ID card and around 98% of banking transactions being via the Internet. More information at the Estonia EU website. While NSTIC was issued by the USA government, it calls for the private sector to lead the development of an Identity Ecosystem that can replace passwords, allow people to prove online that they are who they claim to be, and enhance privacy.  A tall order which runs the risk of creating an oligopoly of identity systems driven by corporate interests and not one which suits users. It may be a signal of things to come that Citibank and Paypal have recently been accepted to lead development of the NSTIC. There are also a number of private sector initiatives which come at the issue from a different perspective. Beyond Paypal, Google Wallet and the recently announced Apple Passbook are interesting initiatives which give some of the attributes of a trusted identity.

Why might we want one?

As more services go online from both government and business and more people want to use them there will be an increased demand for a way of proving who you are online without having to repeat the process separately with each service provider. In some ways this is already happening when we use PayPal to buy products not only on eBay, where it originated but also on Wiggle.co.uk and many others. The problem is that different services need different levels of trust between the vendor and the purchaser. Thinking about a transaction in terms of risk… The majority of private sector transactions online carry equal risk for both the vendor and customer. In that the customer risks that he or she won’t get a product or service from the transaction and the vendor risks that they won’t get the cash. Here online escrow services such as Transpact, or PayPal can help.

Where this doesn’t work well is where there complexity to the transaction.  The banking or government services sector are key areas where this is the case. Here the vendor must know their customer. One area might be analysing whether a customer can pay for a service on credit. Another is in applying for a passport, you need to prove that you are a citizen and pay a fee. However, the intrinsic value of the passport is far greater than the face value, as shown by the black market price. The result to the government if it issues the passport to the wrong person is not the value of the nominal fee, but closer to the black market value of the passport.

As a result, we are at an impasse online, in order for more ‘high trust’ services to go online the community has to have more trust that people are who they say they are.

Who might need a trusted identity?

If you take the Estonian example, 90% of the population. Most of us carry around some form of identity on our persons that we can present if required. In some countries, it’s the law that a citizen must carry their identity card around with them. In Australia and Canada and other countries, it’s a bit more relaxed. In the end the question will be whether a trusted id is used by customers and required by vendors. This will be influenced by whether there are alternative ways of conveying trust between people and institutions which are independent of the concept of identity in the traditional sense of the word

Next time:

What are the security and safety implications of a trusted identity and a discussion of about social footprint and whether this may overtake government efforts

 

He has shifty eyes, but at least we know who he is

A legislative approach that defines as ‘sensitive’ any  biometric measurement shows a lack of common sense and understanding of the science.

A better approach would be to protect those aspects of sensitive personal information  (eg sexuality, political opinion, racial / ethnic origin) collected by any means, making legislation independent of technology.

An interesting paper was published in the most recent International Journal of Biometrics. Finnish scientists have developed a biometric measure using saccade eye movements. Saccade eye movements are the involuntary eye movements when both eyes move quickly in one direction. Using a video camera to record movement, this biometric measure can be highly correlated to an individual.

What is important is that there are large numbers of these life (bio) measurements (metrics) being discovered as scientists look more closely at human physiology and behaviour.

The use of biometric identification technologies sees biometric information (eg eye movement) converted into a series of digits (a hash), which can be statistically compared against another series of digits that have been previously collected during the enrolment of an individual to use a system (eg building access control). A biometric ‘match’ is a comparison of the number derived from the collection of a biometric during enrolment with the number that is elicited during verification. In the real world, these ‘numbers’ are nearly always slightly different. The challenge is to make a system able to allow an individual to get a match when he/she seeks verification and to ensure that the bad guy is repelled.

Generally speaking, biometric identity systems are not primarily designed to determine information that might be used to elicit sensitive personal information. Nor is it practical to reverse-engineer the biometric because of the intentional use of one-way mathematical functions and the degradation of data quantity collected. This means that one person would be hard pressed to elicit any information that might be used to discriminate against another with access to this series of digits.

The word ‘biometric’ seems to send shivers down the spines of some privacy advocates. I suggest it is because most, if not all, are not scientists but lawyers. But these biometric systems  are just the current technology. Many critics of biometrics forget that like any tool, it depends on how it is used. The old saying that fire is a ‘good servant, but a bad master’ is equally true of biometrics.

What seems lacking in common sense is that legislation in several countries (including in Australia) puts up a barrier for the use of biometrics for purposes that protect the privacy and safety of people and organisations.

The information that a biometric collects is not necessarily sensitive information –I don’t really care if you know how often I blink. In fact, a photo of me is more likely to give you information about me that I am sensitive about.

The danger with this approach is that people focus on the technology being ‘bad’ and not on the fact that it is the sensitive information which is potentially harmful.  Biometrics can be privacy enhancing, particularly as they can add additional layers to securing claims about identity and be used to protect individuals and organisations from becoming victims of identity fraud.

Disaggregating biometrics from ‘sensitive information’ and considering technology on the basis of what (sensitive information – gender, medical information, religious affiliation etc) it collects about an individual would more appropriately provides a course of protecting personal information. This of course would avoid stifling the practical application of technology.

 

The journal article can be found here

Martti Juhola et al. Biometric verification of subjects using saccade eye movementsInternational Journal of Biometrics, 2012, 4, 317-337

 

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